According to a report by the Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities (2005) , 30 to 40% of all students enrolled in four-year degree programs drop out, and 78-80% of those who do drop out will do so in their first year. Similar levels have been reported in other provinces, such as Québec (25-35%, Montmarquette, Mahseredjian, & Houle, 2001). In a paper for the Commission of Inquiry on Canadian University Education, Gilbert (1991) estimated that after five years the non-completion rate for university undergraduates is approximately 42% across Canada. Of particular concern, research on student retention has demonstrated that some disciplines have higher drop-out rates than others; science, mathematics, and engineering students are more likely to drop out than students in other disciplines (Daempfle, 2004). Moreover, each year approximately 35% of undergraduates fail introductory mathematics and science classes (Useem, 1992). Because of these growing concerns, research is needed that focuses on increasing retention and achievement in undergraduate science. This research addresses these
concerns by implementing a different approach to providing feedback to students that may result in higher achievement and increased retention at the undergraduate level of education.