Community college systems were established across North America from the early 1960s through the early 1970s. The new systems had two principal models: in one model, the college combined lower-division, university-level general education with technical education programs; in the other, most or all of the colleges were intended to concentrate on technical education. Ontario was the largest of the provinces and states in North America that opted for the second model. Many of the issues that planners confronted when designing these college systems have either persisted or re-emerged in recent years. This
article re-examines the debate on the design of Ontarioâ€™s colleges that took place when they were founded and considers its implications for the present.
Depuis le dÃ©but des annÃ©es 1960 et jusquâ€™au dÃ©but des annÃ©es 1970, lorsquâ€™on crÃ©ait des rÃ©seaux de collÃ¨ges communautaires partout en AmÃ©rique du Nord, deux modÃ¨les majeurs Ã©taient proposÃ©s pour ces nouveaux rÃ©seaux. Dans un des modÃ¨les, le collÃ¨ge combinait lâ€™enseignement gÃ©nÃ©ral universitaire de division infÃ©rieure avec les programmes dâ€™enseignement technique ; dans lâ€™autre, la plupart des collÃ¨ges, sinon tous, se concentraient sur lâ€™enseignement technique. Lâ€™Ontario Ã©tait la plus importante parmi les provinces et les Ã‰tats en AmÃ©rique du Nord qui ait optÃ© pour le deuxiÃ¨me modÃ¨le. Beaucoup des dÃ©fis auxquels les planifi cateurs ont Ã©tÃ© confrontÃ©s lorsquâ€™ils ont conÃ§u le rÃ©seau des collÃ¨ges sont encore prÃ©sents ou sont rÃ©apparus au cours des derniÃ¨res annÃ©es. Cet article rÃ©examine lâ€™ancien dÃ©bat sur la conception des collÃ¨ges de lâ€™Ontario et considÃ¨re ses implications actuelles.
This paper examines relationships between the resources available to immigrant families and the amount parents are willing and able to save for their children's post-secondary education (PSE). We use data from Statistics Canada's 2002 Survey of Approaches to Educational Planning to compare immigrant and native-born PSE saving. The results indicate that income and asset wealth constrain PSE savings in some immigrant families. However, immigrants share with non-immigrants a set of parenting beliefs and practices that encourage both groups to invest in their childrenâ€™s educational futures.
Cet article examine les relations entre les ressources disponibles aux familles immigrantes et le montant que les parents veulent et peuvent Ã©pargner pour les Ã©tudes postsecondaires (EPS) de leurs enfants. Afi n de comparer les Ã©pargnes pour les EPS des immigrants et des non-immigrants, nous avons eu recours aux donnÃ©es de lâ€™EnquÃªte sur les approches en matiÃ¨re de planifi cation des Ã©tudes, effectuÃ©e en 2002 par Statistique Canada. Les rÃ©sultats rÃ©vÃ¨lent que lâ€™Ã©tat de lâ€™actif et des revenus freine lâ€™Ã©pargne pour les EPS chez certaines familles immigrantes. Toutefois, les immigrants et non-immigrants partagent un ensemble de croyances et de pratiques parentales communes qui encouragent les deux diffÃ©rents groupes Ã investir dans lâ€™avenir Ã©ducationnel de leurs enfants.
What sources and resources do college students utilize to assist them in the transfer process? What factors influence studentsâ€™ transfer decisions? What information do students possess about transfer and of what quality is the transfer information students receive? This investigation interviews students of two-year College of Applied Arts and Technology (CAAT) and Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning (ITAL) programs in the province of Ontario, Canada who identify intentions to transfer to university within their first semester in college. Grounding all analysis in Spence (1973), Akerlof (1970) and Stiglitzâ€™s (1990) work on asymmetric information, adverse selection and signaling, this study examines students' knowledge of transfer and their attainment of that knowledge. Policy recommendations for the further development of transfer assistance mechanisms and timing of implementation are provided.
Keywords: transfer credit; seamless education; asymmetric information; signalling.
Quelles sources et ressources les Ã©tudiants de collÃ¨ge utilisent-ils pour faciliter leur transfert ? Quels sont les facteurs qui influencent leur dÃ©cision dâ€™Ãªtre transfÃ©rÃ©s? Quelles informations possÃ¨dent-ils sur les transferts, et quelle est la qualitÃ© de ces informations ? Cette enquÃªte interroge des Ã©tudiants de deuxiÃ¨me annÃ©e du CollÃ¨ge dâ€™arts appliquÃ©s et de technologie (CAAT) et de lâ€™Institut de technologie et dâ€™enseignement supÃ©rieur (ITAL) ; ces collÃ¨ges offrent des programmes de deux ans dans la province de lâ€™Ontario, au Canada pour identifier les dÃ©cisions des Ã©tudiants dâ€™Ãªtre transfÃ©rÃ©s dans une universitÃ© durant leur premier semestre au collÃ¨ge. FondÃ©e sur lâ€™analyse de Spence (1973), dâ€™Akerlof (1970) et de Stiglitz (1990) sur lâ€™information asymÃ©trique et les sÃ©lections erronÃ©es, elle signale les connaissances que les Ã©tudiants ont du transfert et comment ils les ont acquises. Le texte fournit des recommandations sur la politique Ã suivre pour dÃ©velopper davantage les mÃ©canismes dâ€™aide au transfert et le choix du moment de lâ€™effectuer. Mots clÃ©s: crÃ©dit de transfert, Ã©ducation continue, information asymÃ©trique, signaler
The demand for quantitative assessment by external agencies and internal administrators can leave post-secondary instructors confused about the nature and purpose of learning outcomes and fearful that the demand is simply part of the increasing corporatization of the university system. This need not be the case. Developing learning outcomes has a number
of benefits for course design that go beyond program assessment. This article clarifies some key aspects of the push toward using learning outcomes and introduces a tripartite nomenclature for distinguishing among course outcomes, outputs, and objectives. It then outlines a process for instructors to use these three categories to develop and design courses
that meet institutional assessment demands while also improving overall teaching effectiveness.
Lâ€™Ã©valuation quantitative que demandent les agences externes et les administrateurs internes peut confondre les instructeurs de niveau postsecondaires quant Ã la nature et Ã lâ€™objectif des Â« rÃ©sultats dâ€™apprentissage Â», et leur faire craindre que cette demande ne fasse simplement partie de la privatisation croissante du systÃ¨me universitaire. Ce nâ€™est pas forcÃ©ment le cas. La crÃ©ation de rÃ©sultats dâ€™apprentissage prÃ©sente de nombreux avantages sur le plan de la conception de cours, avantages qui vont au-delÃ de lâ€™Ã©valuation de programme. Lâ€™article clarifie quelques aspects principaux de la poussÃ©e vers lâ€™utilisation de Â« rÃ©sultats dâ€™apprentissage Â» et prÃ©sente
une nomenclature tripartite pour faire la distinction entre les rÃ©sultats de cours, le rendement et les objectifs. Il dÃ©crit ensuite un processus pour que les instructeurs emploient ces trois catÃ©gories afin de concevoir des cours qui rÃ©pondent aux exigences en Ã©valuation de lâ€™institution, tout en amÃ©liorant lâ€™efficacitÃ© de lâ€™enseignement dans son ensemble.
The purpose of faculty development in terms of the educational role is to assist faculty in becoming better educators. Educational peer review (EPR) is one method of faculty development. This article is based on a study that explored the different development needs of nursing faculty within a school of nursing at an Ontario university. The study explored on three variables of interest: level of skill acquisition, type of faculty appointment, and type of teaching. A qualitative research design in the case-study tradition was employed. Findings indicated that faculty challenges could be grouped into three themes: job knowledge, skills development, and systems challenges. Job knowledge and skills development challenges varied by level of skill acquisition and type of teaching, while identifi ed systems challenges were related to type of appointment. A fl exible EPR program that allows for some customization may lead to an increased ability to meet individual faculty development needs and greater faculty buy-in.
Le but du dÃ©veloppement de facultÃ© dans le rÃ´le Ã©ducatif est dâ€™aider la facultÃ© Ã devenir des meilleurs Ã©ducateurs. Lâ€™Ã©valuation Ã©ducative par les pairs (EEP) est une mÃ©thode de dÃ©veloppement de facultÃ©. Cette Ã©tude a explorÃ© les diffÃ©rences dans les besoins de dÃ©veloppement de facultÃ© dâ€™une facultÃ© dâ€™infi rmiers dans une Ã©cole dâ€™infi rmiers Ã une universitÃ© dâ€™Ontario basÃ©e sur trois variables dâ€™intÃ©rÃªt : niveau dâ€™acquisition de compÃ©tence, type de dÃ©signation de facultÃ© et type dâ€™enseignement. Un protocole de recherche qualitatif dans la tradition dâ€™Ã©tude de cas a Ã©tÃ© 54 CJHE / RCES Volume 40, No. 1, 2010 utilisÃ©. Les rÃ©sultats ont indiquÃ© que des dÃ©fi s de facultÃ© pourraient Ãªtre groupÃ©s dans trois thÃ¨mes: la connaissance de travail, le dÃ©veloppement de compÃ©tences et les dÃ©fi s du systÃ¨me. La connaissance de travail et les dÃ©fi s de dÃ©veloppement de compÃ©tences ont variÃ© par le niveau de lâ€™acquisition de compÃ©tence et le type dâ€™enseignement, alors que
des dÃ©fi s du systÃ¨me identifi Ã©s Ã©taient liÃ©s au type de dÃ©signation. Un programme fl exible de EEP, qui tient compte de personnalisation, peut mener Ã la capacitÃ© accrue de rÃ©pondre aux diffÃ©rents besoins de dÃ©veloppement de facultÃ© et au plus dâ€™acceptation de facultÃ©.
Obtaining a postsecondary education (PSE) is a crucial requirement both for Ontario and for the province's youth. With a cross-section of all demographic and socioeconomic groups in PSE, a dual benefit ensues: the province acquires the human capital needed for Ontarioâ€™s economic success (HEQCO, 2010, p. 31), and graduates experience lower rates of unemployment, greater job stability and higher earnings (Berger, Motte, & Parkin, 2009, p. 7-21).
Objective of this Report
This report seeks to establish trends in factors that are impacting PSE decision making among Ontario's youth and to identify features that are strong predictors of PSE participation. The research is a collaborative effort of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC) and the Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario (HEQCO).
The decision to pursue a postsecondary education is influenced by a number of factors, including parental involvement, career counselling, parental income and education levels, and student location. In this report, student, household and external factors are examined to determine their impact on postsecondary pathways of Ontario youth of both linguistic sectors.
Comparisons between Ontario and the rest of Canada are also explored.
This article examines whether rising tuition fees for post-secondary education are a contributing factor in studentsâ€™ labour market decisions. When labour market decisions for total number of working hours and for participation were measured, the results suggested that concerns about increased tuition fees leading to more work and compromising academic studies were unwarranted. The tuition fee effect was highly seasonal in nature. When tuition fees increased, students devoted more hours and participated more in labour market activities, but they did so only during the summer period, a time when most students are typically not involved in study activities.
Dans cet article, les auteurs examinent comment les facteurs dâ€™augmenter ou de maintenir les frais de scolaritÃ©, au niveau des Ã©tudes post-secondaires, peuvent infl uencer les Ã©tudiants et leurs dÃ©cisions en ce qui concerne le marchÃ© du travail. Elles ont mesurÃ© les dÃ©cisions des Ã©tudiants en considÃ©rant toutes les heures travaillÃ©es ainsi que le taux de participation. Les rÃ©sultats indiquent quâ€™une augmentation de frais de scolaritÃ© ne mÃ¨ne ni Ã plus dâ€™heures travaillÃ©es ni Ã plus dâ€™Ã©tudes acadÃ©miques compromises. Lâ€™effet des frais de scolaritÃ© est trÃ¨s saisonnier. Lorsquâ€™il y a une augmentation de frais de scolaritÃ©, les Ã©tudiants travaillent plus dâ€™heures et participent plus dans le marchÃ© du travail, mais ceci uniquement pendant la pÃ©riode dâ€™Ã©tÃ© lorsquâ€™ils ne sont pas impliquÃ©s aux Ã©tudes.
Student participation in applied research as a form of experiential learning in community colleges is relatively new. Ontario Colleges today participate at different levels with different numbers of projects and faculty involved. A few colleges in Ontario are more established in doing applied research including having basic infrastructure for research and having defined in which disciplines they will conduct research. This study took place in a college with a more established applied research program with the study goal of hearing and listening from the students and their teacher/research leaders as to their perceived benefit from the research program. The findings showed that the students found the program very beneficial and that student learning in areas considered important for the workplace was occurring that would not have been possible in the regular classroom.
Do students know the level of education required to achieve their career objectives? Is this information related to their education pathways? To address these questions, I compare high school students' perceptions of the level of education they will require for the job they intend to hold at age 30, with the level required according to professional job analysts. About three out of four students intending to work in a job requiring a university degree know the level of education that is required to obtain the job. Moreover, students who know that a university degree is required are more likely to attend university. Finally, higher university attendance rates are observed when students learn earlier (rather than later), that a university degree is required for their intended job.
Les Ã©lÃ¨ves savent-ils quelles Ã©tudes leur permettront dâ€™atteindre leurs objectifs de carriÃ¨re? Ces renseignements sont-ils associÃ©s Ã leur parcours scolaire? Afi n de rÃ©pondre Ã ces questions, je compare, dâ€™une part, la perception quâ€™ont les Ã©lÃ¨ves du secondaire quant au niveau dâ€™instruction qui leur est requis pour travailler dans la profession quâ€™ils souhaitent exercer Ã lâ€™Ã¢ge de 30 ans avec, dâ€™autre part, le niveau rÃ©ellement requis selon les analystes du marchÃ© professionnel. Ainsi, environ trois Ã©tudiants sur quatre ayant lâ€™intention dâ€™exercer une profession qui nÃ©cessite un grade universitaire sont conscients du niveau dâ€™instruction requis. Par ailleurs, les Ã©lÃ¨ves qui sont conscients de la nÃ©cessitÃ© dâ€™un grade universitaire ont plus de chances de frÃ©quenter lâ€™universitÃ©. Enfi n, on observe un taux de frÃ©quentation universitaire plus Ã©levÃ© chez les Ã©lÃ¨ves qui ont pris conscience, plus tÃ´t dans leur parcours, de la nÃ©cessitÃ© dâ€™un grade universitaire pour rÃ©aliser leur aspiration professionnelle.
Findings from biannual American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment surveys have highlighted the prevalence of depression, suicidal ideation, and attempted suicides on Canadian university campuses and the need for comprehensive suicide prevention programs. This article explores how one large western Canadian university has attempted to implement the comprehensive framework for suicide prevention developed by the Jed Foundation. Based on recommendations included in this framework, a multi-faceted suicide prevention strategy was developed, focusing on seven broad intervention
1) enhanced student connectedness and engagement;
2) increased community suicide awareness;
3) gatekeeper training;
4) collaborative identifi cation and treatment of depression;
5) specialized training in assessment and treatment of suicide;
6) increased accessibility to counselling services for at-risk students; and
7) enhanced crisis management policy and procedures. This article reviews relevant empirical support for these seven intervention domains, provides examples of initiatives in each domain, and identifi es implications for best practice post-secondary policy.
Les rÃ©sultats des sondages de la Â« National College Health AssociationÂ» soulÃ¨vent la prÃ©valence de la dÃ©pression, des pensÃ©es suicidaires, et des tentatives de suicide parmi les Ã©tudiants des universitÃ©s canadiennes et le besoin de programmes comprÃ©hensifs de prÃ©vention du suicide. Dans cet article, les auteurs dÃ©crivent lâ€™implantation, par une universitÃ© Ã vocation de recherche de lâ€™ouest canadien, dâ€™un encadrement globale vouÃ© Ã la prÃ©vention du suicide dÃ©veloppÃ© par la Fondation Jed. Dâ€™aprÃ¨s les recommandations de la Fondation Jed, lâ€™approche multilatÃ©rale de la prÃ©vention du suicide englobe sept dimensions dâ€™interventions :
1) une hausse dâ€™engagement des Ã©tudiants dans les activitÃ©s universitaires et parmi les communautÃ©s Ã©tudiantes ;
2) une sensibilisation augmentÃ©e par rapport Ã la prÃ©vention du suicide ;
3) la formation du personnel Â« fi ltreÂ» dans lâ€™institution ;
4) une approche collaborative Ã lâ€™identifi cation et le traitement de la dÃ©pression ;
5) une formation spÃ©cialisÃ© en identifi cation et traitement du suicide ;
6) un meilleur accÃ¨s des Ã©tudiants Ã taux de risques relevÃ©es aux services
dâ€™assistance psychologique ; et,
7) un enrichissement des politiques
et procÃ©dures concernant la gestion des risques. Dans cet article, les auteurs rÃ©sument les donnÃ©es appuyant les interventions dÃ©crites ci-dessus, offrent des exemples des initiatives dans chacune des dimensions listÃ©es et proposent les implications pour le renforcement des compÃ©tences universitaires dans ces domaines.
Cheryl A. Washburn
University of British Columbia
Adler School of Professional Psychology
Since the Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario (HEQCO) was launched, it has completed and published more than 140 research studies â€“ and funded dozens more that are currently underway â€“ that explore a wide range of trends and issues involving Ontario's postsecondary system. Drawing mainly from HEQCO's own research, this @Issue paper:
. Describes how the definition of student success has gradually broadened at Ontario colleges and universities;
. Summarizes some of the underlying institutional and student population factors that also impact on most current measures of student success;
. Provides broad observations about some recent findings as they relate to the awareness, utilization and impact of various student service, course-based and other initiatives designed to promote student success;
. Recommends what can be measured â€“ as well as how and what outcomes can be expected â€“ when it comes to initiatives and interventions designed to improve student success.
Some readers will be looking for the "silver bullet" within this paper. They will want to be told about a best practice that has been proven to be most effective at improving academic achievement, retention or engagement at an Ontario college or university, and that can be replicated to equal effect elsewhere. This @Issue paper does not identify â€œsilver bullets.â€ As explained in the pages that follow, the scope and scale of an intervention may make it difficult to measure â€“ or even expect â€“ considerable impacts on student success, especially in the short term.
This paper does provide broad lessons, however, that are likely to be applicable across a wide range of student service, course-based and other interventions currently offered at Ontario colleges and universities.
Defining â€œStudent Successâ€
For several decades, both governments and colleges/universities in Ontario and across Canada have tried to broaden access to postsecondary education (PSE) In particular, it was believed that a wide variety of barriers â€“ family and social background, financial resources, information about options, etc. â€“ needed to be overcome to encourage broader PSE participation, especially by those from traditionally under-represented groups (low income, first-generation, Aboriginal, visible
minority, rural, etc.).
Undergraduate college student borrowing has risen dramatically in recent years. Graduates who received a bachelorâ€™s degree in 20081 borrowed 50% more (in inflation-adjusted dollars) than their counterparts who graduated in 1996, while graduates who earned an associateâ€™s degree or undergraduate certificate in 2008 borrowed more than twice what their counterparts in 1996 had borrowed, according to a new analysis of National Center for Education Statistics data by the Pew Research Centerâ€™s Social & Demographic Trends project.
Increased borrowing by college students has been driven by three trends:
ï‚· More college students are borrowing. In 2008, 60% of all graduates had borrowed, compared with about half (52%) in 1996.
- College students are borrowing more. Among 2008 graduates who borrowed, the average loan for bachelorâ€™s degree recipients was more than $23,000, compared with slightly more than $17,000 in 1996. For associateâ€™s degree and certificate recipients, the average loan increased to more than $12,600 from about $7,600 (all figures in 2008 dollars).
- More college students are attending private for-profit schools, where levels and rates of borrowing are highest. Over the past decade, the private for-profit sector has expanded more rapidly than either the public or private not-for-profit sectors. In 2008, these institutions granted 18% of all undergraduate awards, up from 14% in 2003.2 Students who attend for-profit colleges are more likely than other students to borrow, and they typically borrow larger amounts.
Other key findings from the Pew Research analysis:
- One-quarter (24%) of 2008 bachelorâ€™s degree graduates at for-profit schools borrowed more than $40,000, compared with 5% of graduates at public institutions and 14% at not-for-profit schools.
- Roughly one-in-four recipients of an associateâ€™s degree or certificate borrowed more than $20,000 at both private for-profit and private not-for-profit schools, compared with 5% of graduates of public schools.
- Graduates of private for-profit schools are demographically different from graduates in other sectors. Generally, private for-profit school graduates have lower incomes, and are older, more likely to be from minority groups, more likely to be female, more likely to be independent of their parents and more likely to have their own dependants.
Summary of findings
Questions have been raised about the social impact of widespread use of social networking sites (SNS) like Facebook, LinkedIn, MySpace, and Twitter. Do these technologies isolate people and truncate their relationships? Or are there benefits associated with being connected to others in this way? The Pew Research Centerâ€™s Internet & American Life Project decided to examine SNS in a survey that explored peopleâ€™s overall social networks and how use of these technologies is related to trust, tolerance, social support, and community and political engagement. The findings presented here paint a rich and complex picture of the role that digital technology plays in peopleâ€™s social worlds. Wherever possible, we seek to disentangle whether peopleâ€™s varying social behaviors and attitudes are related to the different ways they use social networking sites, or to other relevant demographic characteristics, such as age, gender and social class.
The number of those using social networking sites has nearly doubled since 2008 and the population of SNS users has gotten older. In this Pew Internet sample, 79% of American adults said they used the internet and nearly half of adults (47%), or 59% of internet users, say they use at least one of SNS. This is close to double the 26% of adults (34% of internet users) who used a SNS in 2008. Among other things, this means the average age of adult-SNS users has shifted from 33 in 2008 to 38 in 2010. Over half of all adult SNS users are now over the age of 35. Some 56% of SNS users now are female.
Facebook dominates the SNS space in this survey: 92% of SNS users are on Facebook; 29% use MySpace, 18% used LinkedIn and 13% use Twitter. There is considerable variance in the way people use various social networking sites: 52% of Facebook users and 33% of Twitter users engage with the platform daily, while only 7% of MySpace and 6% of LinkedIn users do the same.
On Facebook on an average day:
- 15% of Facebook users update their own status.
- 22% comment on anotherâ€™s post or status.
- 20% comment on another userâ€™s photos.
- 26% â€œLikeâ€ another userâ€™s content.
- 10% send another user a private message
This Digital Content Strategy Guide will assist you in creating a plan for your school or district to bring digital content/curriculum to students, teachers, administrators and parents. This plan will help you set the strategy for leveraging existing digital assets, acquiring new digital content and ensuring the effective implementation of digital content within your school or district. It is meant to be easy to navigate and highly useable with several sets of questions, models and advice to consider, and an abundant amount of resources to explore.
This guide provides you with the information you need to develop a framework that ensures effective policy and practice throughout the educational experience.
This framework is sustainable in systematically achieving the instructional goals and outcomes your school or district desires, outcomes that can â€” and undoubtedly should â€” prepare students to compete in the global society.
The guide also provides best practices in the selection and implementation of digital assets that maximize your investment in digital content by helping you to assess what you are doing now, what is working and what to leverage in the next stage. It suggests productive collaborations with industry, community leaders and parents to acquire and produce the content you need and want. In short, it can help guide you toward better and more productive practice.
â€œDigital learning is the great equalizer. It holds the promise of extending access to rigorous high quality instruction to every student across America, regardless of language, zip code, income levels, or special needs.â€
A May 2011 Pew Internet survey finds that 92% of online adults use search engines to find information on the Web, including 59% who do so on a typical day. This places search at the top of the list of most popular online activities among U.S. adults. But it is not alone at the top. Among online adults, 92% use email, with 61% using it on an average day.
Since the Pew Internet Project began measuring adults' online activities in the last decade, these two behaviors have consistently ranked as the most popular. Even as early as 2002, more than eight in ten online adults were using search engines, and more than nine in ten online adults were emailing.
This report is based on findings from a pair of Pew Research Center surveys conducted this spring. One is a telephone survey taken among a nationally representative sample of 2,142 adults ages 18 and older. The other is an online survey, done in association with the Chronicle of Higher Education, among the presidents of 1,055 two-year and four-year private, public, and for-profit colleges and universities.
Here is a summary of key findings:
Survey of the General Public
Cost and Value. A majority of Americans (57%) say the higher education system in the United States fails to provide students with good value for the money they and their families spend. An even larger majorityâ€”75%â€”says college is too expensive for most Americans to afford. At the same time, however, an overwhelming majority of college graduatesâ€”86%â€”say that college has been a good investment for them personally.
Monetary Payoff. Adults who graduated from a four-year college believe that, on average, they are earning $20,000 more a year as a result of having gotten that degree. Adults who did not attend college believe that, on average, they are earning $20,000 a year less as a result. These matched estimates by the public are very close to the median gap in annual earnings between a high school and college graduate as reported by the U.S. Census Bureau in 2010: $19,550. A more detailed Pew Research Center analysis (see Chapter 5) shows that this gap varies by type of degree and field of study.
Student Loans. A record share of students are leaving college with a substantial debt burden, and among those who do, about half (48%) say that paying off that debt made it harder to pay other bills; a quarter say it has made it harder to buy a home (25%); and about a quarter say it has had an impact on their career choices (24%).
Why Not College? Nearly every parent surveyed (94%) says they expect their child to attend college, but even as college enrollments have reached record levels, most young adults in this country still do not attend a four-year college. The main barrier is financial. Among adults ages 18 to 34 who are not in school and do not have a bachelorâ€™s degree, two-thirds say a major reason for not continuing their education is the need to support a family. Also, 57% say they would prefer to work and make money; and 48% say they can't afford to go to college.
Many devices have become popular across generations, with a majority now owning cell phones, laptops and desktop computers. Younger adults are leading the way in increased mobility, preferring laptops to desktops and using their cell phones for a variety of functions, including internet, email, music, games, and video.
Among the findings:
- Cell phones are by far the most popular device among American adults, especially for adults under the age of 65. Some 85% of adults own cell phones overall. Taking pictures (done by 76% of cell owners) and text messaging (done by 72% of cell owners) are the two non-voice functions that are widely popular among all cell phone users.
- Desktop computers are most popular with adults ages 35-65, with 69% of Gen X, 65% of Younger Boomers and 64% of Older Boomers owning these devices.
ï‚· Millennials are the only generation that is more likely to own a laptop computer or netbook than a desktop: 70% own a laptop, compared with 57% who own a desktop.
- While almost half of all adults own an mp3 player like an iPod, this device is by far the most popular with Millennials, the youngest generationâ€”74% of adults ages 18-34 own an mp3 player, compared with 56% of the next oldest generation, Gen X (ages 35-46).
- Game consoles are significantly more popular with adults ages 18-46, with 63% owning these devices.
- 5% of all adults own an e-book reader; they are least popular with adults age 75 and older, with 2% owning this device.
- Tablet computers, such as the iPad, are most popular with American adults age 65 and younger. 4% of all adults own this device.
Additionally, about one in 11 (9%) adults do not own any of the devices we asked about, including 43% of adults age 75 and older.
In terms of generations, Millennials are by far the most likely group not only to own most of the devices we asked about, but also to take advantage of a wider range of functions. For instance, while cell phones have become ubiquitous in American households, most cell phone owners only use two of the main non-voice functions on their phones: taking pictures and text messaging. Among Millennials, meanwhile, a majority use their phones also for going online, sending email, playing games, listening to music, and recording videos.
However, Gen X is also very similar to Millennials in ownership of certain devices, such as game consoles. Members of Gen X are also more likely than Millennials to own a desktop computer.
e-Book readers and tablet computers so far have not seen significant differences in ownership between generations, although members of the oldest generation (adults age 75 and older) are less likely than younger generations to own these devices.
When teachers think the best, most important way to improve their teaching is by developing their content knowledge, they end up with sophisticated levels of knowledge, but they have only simplistic instructional methods to convey that material. To imagine that content matters more than process is to imagine that the car is more important than the road. Both are essential. What we teach and how we teach it are inextricably linked and very much dependent on one another.
This special report features 11 articles pulled from the pages of The Teaching Professor to help you discover new ways to build connections between what you teach and how you teach it. The report offers tips on how to engage students, give feedback, create a climate for learning, and more. It also provides fresh perspectives on how faculty should approach their development as teachers.
Itâ€™s been said that few things can enhance student learning more than an instructorâ€™s commitment to ongoing professional development. Hereâ€™s a sample of the articles you will find in Effective Strategies for Improving College Teaching and Learning:
. Faculty Self-Disclosures in the College Classroom
. A Tree Falling in the Forest: Helping Students â€˜Hearâ€™ and Use Your Comments
. Understanding What You See Happening in Class
. Can Training Make You a Better Teacher?
.Striving for Academic Excellence
Although there is no single best teaching method, approach, or style, this special report will give you a variety of strategies to try. Those that work effectively with your students you should make your own.
According to recent forecasts, in just a few yearsâ€™ time, almost one in three students in American schools will be
English language learners. Many schools that once had only a handful of students new to this country and to the English language are now facing an influx of students for whom English is a second language. The No Child Left Behind Act officially made English learners a potentially significant subgroup for measuring Adequate Yearly Progress, a key accountability
measure for schools and districts. Rapid mastery of the English language is key for students to succeed in the K-12 education program. Reading, writing, listening and speaking are all core areas of learning a language. Each of these skills, of course, lies at the heart of basic K-12 educational programs and are assumed competencies at the higher education level. Academic success within an educationalprogram ultimately requires mastery of content that is more often than not delivered in English-based materials.
Computer and communication technologies have a central role to play in facilitating that rapid mastery. With guided, self-paced instruction that allows repetition and personalization, English learners in todayâ€™s K-20 classroom are strides ahead of their counterparts years ago. Whether teaching students within the classroom or adult learners at home or at work, technology-based materials and media have become the delivery medium of choice. Programs specifically focused on English learners, as well as advances in computer-based translation programs, have opened up virtually all electronic content to the English learner.
95% of those in households earning over $75,000 use the internet and cell phones Those in higher-income households are more likely to use the internet on any given day, own multiple internet-ready devices, do things involving money online, and get news online Those in higher-income households are different from other Americans in their tech ownership and use. Analysis of several recent surveys conducted by the Pew Research Centerâ€™s Internet & American Life Projects find that there are key differences between those who live in households making $75,000 or more relative to those in lower-income households. Some 95% of Americans who live in households earning $75,000 or more a year use the internet at least occasionally, compared with 70% of those living in households earning less than $75,000. Even among those who use the internet, the well off are more likely than those with less income to use technology. Of those 95% of higher-income internet users:
- 99% use the internet at home, compared with 93% of the internet users in lower brackets.
- 93% of higher-income home internet users have some type of broadband connection versus 85% of the internet users who live in households earning less than $75,000 per year. That translates into 87% of all those in live in those better-off households having broadband at home.
- 95% of higher-income households own some type of cell phone compared with 83% in households with less income.