This study addresses the research question of how instructor transformational leadership behaviors and transactional leadership behaviors affect student outcomes of cognitive learning, affective learning, student perceptions of instructor credibility, and communication satisfaction in distance education. An overview of the theoretical underpinnings of the study is provided, as well as the tested hypotheses. A summary of the methodology, including sampling procedures, instrumentation, and data collection processes is presented, along with the procedures used for data analysis. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the relationships among the specified variables. Results support all four hypotheses, indicating that instructor transformational leadership behaviors are a more significant predictor of cognitive learning, affective learning, perceptions of instructor credibility, and communication satisfaction than instructor transactional leadership behaviors. The implications of the findings as well as the limitations of this research and suggestions for future research are discussed.